Cardiovascular disease (CVD)

General Practitioner


CVD is one of the main causes of death and disability in the UK, but it can often largely
be prevented by leading a healthy lifestyle.

Types of CVD

There are many different types of CVD. Four of the main types are described below.

Coronary heart disease

Coronary heart disease occurs when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle is blocked or reduced. This puts an increased strain on the heart, and can lead to:

angina – chest pain caused by restricted blood flow to the heart muscle

heart attacks – where the blood flow to the heart muscle is suddenly blocked

heart failure – where the heart is unable to pump blood around the body properly

Strokes and TIAs

A stroke is where the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off, which can cause brain damage and possibly death. A transient ischaemic attack (also called a TIA or “mini-stroke”) is similar, but the blood flow to the brain is only temporarily disrupted.

Peripheral arterial disease

Peripheral arterial disease occurs when there’s a blockage in the arteries to the limbs, usually the legs. This can cause:

dull or cramping leg pain, which is worse when walking and gets better with rest

hair loss on the legs and feet

numbness or weakness in the legs

persistent ulcers (open sores) on the feet and legs

Aortic disease

Aortic diseases are a group of conditions affecting the aorta. This is the largest blood vessel in the body, which carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. One of most common aortic diseases is an aortic aneurysm, where the aorta becomes weakened and bulges outwards. This doesn’t usually have any symptoms, but there’s a chance it could burst and cause life threatening bleeding.

Causes of CVD

The exact cause of CVD isn’t clear, but there are lots of things that can increase your risk of getting it. These are called “risk factors”. The more risk factors you have, the greater your chances of developing CVD. The main risk factors for CVD are outlined below.

High blood pressure

High blood pressure (hypertension) is one of the most important risk factors for CVD. If your blood pressure is too high, it can damage your blood vessels.


Smoking and other tobacco use is also a significant risk factor for CVD. The harmful

substances in tobacco can damage and narrow your blood vessels.

High cholesterol

Cholesterol is a fatty substance found in the blood. If you have high cholesterol, it can cause your blood vessels to narrow and increase your risk of developing a blood clot.


Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes your blood sugar level to become too high. High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels, making them more likely to become narrowed. Many people with type 2 diabetes are also overweight or obese, which is also a risk factor for CVD.


If you don’t exercise regularly, it’s more likely that you’ll have high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and be overweight. All of these are risk factors for CVD. Exercising regularly will help keep your heart healthy. When combined with a healthy diet, exercise can also help you maintain a healthy weight.

Being overweight or obese

Being overweight or obese increases your risk of developing diabetes and high blood pressure, both of which are risk factors for CVD. You’re at an increased risk of CVD if: your body mass index (BMI) is 25 or above – use the BMI healthy weight calculator to work out your BMI you’re a man with a waist measurement of 94cm (about 37 inches) or more, or a woman with a waist measurement of 80cm (about 31.5 inches) or more

Family history of CVD

If you have a family history of CVD, your risk of developing it is also increased. You’re considered to have a family history of CVD if either:
your father or brother were diagnosed with CVD before they were 55

your mother or sister were diagnosed with CVD before they were 65

Ethnic background

In the UK, CVD is more common in people of south Asian and an African or Caribbean background. This is because people from these backgrounds are more likely to have other risk factors for CVD, such as high blood pressure or type 2 diabetes.

Other risk factors

Other factors that affect your risk of developing CVD include:

age – CVD is most common in people over 50 and your risk of developing it increases as you get older gender – men are more likely to develop CVD at an earlier age than women diet – an unhealthy diet can lead to high cholesterol and high blood pressure alcohol – excessive alcohol consumption can also increase your cholesterol and blood pressure levels, and contribute to weight gain

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